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This schematic of a ‘modern’ eukaryotic plant cell is generalized. It is a teaching tool. This is not what all plant cells look like up close. Whether plant or animal an organism’s cells can have very different structures, such as those within the xylem tissue, a leaf or a flowers ovary…they are not identical ‘blocks’ merely put together in different patterns. It does show many of the essential organelles within the cells of plants. The ribosomes, shown here as tiny dots, of which there can be upwards of 10 million living freely within a single cell or attached to the membrane within both the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, altogether which are responsible for the production of a cell’s proteins, varying from the organelle that produced it; the chloroplasts which serve as the sites for photosynthesis…in those cells that ‘require’ them, which transform into other bodies, serving other functions when not ‘needed’; the mitochondrion, singular, each cell will have several, which serve as energy production centers transforming the energy contained within the synthesized carbohydrates into ATP to directly power a cell’s functioning; lysosomes which break down damaged or degraded proteins for reuse; the various vesicles and vacuoles which store compounds, hormones and enzymes for later use and much more. While all cells contain many of these, the cells of more specialized tissues, such as the vascular/structural tissue of a plant’s stem have very unique shapes and utilize the thickened and strengthened cell walls in fulfilling their functions. All of this is coordinated within the organism.

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